Week114

[Culture ★] The coldest village in the world

[Animals ★★] Kung Fu Panda

[Travel ★★] Los Angeles

[World News ★★] New UAE law gives workers time off to read

[Environment ★★★] These New Delhi Selfies Are Raising Eyebrows

[Culture ★★★] Hanami

[Travel ★★★] The Korean DMZ

[Sports ★★★★] Ghirmay Ghebreslassie, Mary Keitany win NYC Marathon

[Science ★★★★] Eating dairy cheese may protect against sodium-related health risks

Eating dairy cheese may protect against sodium-related health risks

[Science ★★★★]

cheese

(P1) Consuming dairy cheese instead of other sodium-laden foods may actually protect against some of sodium’s effects on the cardiovascular system, such as high blood pressure, according to researchers at Penn State.

(P2) The researchers say the protection comes from antioxidant properties of dairy proteins in cheese.

(P3) “This is a novel finding that may have implications for dietary recommendations. Newer dietary recommendations suggest limiting sodium, but our data suggest that eating sodium in the form of a dairy product, such as cheese, may be protective,” said Lacy Alexander, associate professor of kinesiology and co-lead researcher on the project.

(P4) “We are already aware that at the population level, people who eat more dairy typically have lower blood pressure,” Alexander added.

(P5) The data suggest that when sodium is consumed in cheese it does not have the negative vascular effects that researchers observed with sodium from non-dairy sources. The researchers interpret this to mean that the proteins and nutrients in cheese may be protecting the blood vessels from the short-term negative effects of sodium. However, it is not known if this protection extends over the long term.

(P6) For the study, Alexander and colleagues fed participants dairy cheese, pretzels, or soy cheese on five separate occasions, three days apart. They then compared the effects of each food on the cardiovascular system using a laser-Doppler, which shines a weak laser light onto the skin.

(P7) The laser light reflects off red blood cells that flow through the vessels just under the skin, allowing researchers to measure how much the blood vessels dilate in response to skin warming and how much of that dilation is due to the production of nitric oxide, a gas that’s naturally produced in the body to deliver messages between cells.

(P8) The goal was to compare the effect of short-term dairy-cheese consumption to sodium consumption from non-dairy sources.

(P9) Soy served as an additional control to match the fat, salt, and protein content from a dietary source that is not dairy-based.

(P10) “We found that when our subjects ate a lot of sodium in cheese, they had better blood vessel function, more blood flow, compared to when they ate an equal amount of sodium from non-dairy sources, in this case, pretzels and soy cheese,” said Anna Stanhewicz, co-investigator and postdoctoral fellow in the Center for Healthy Aging.

(P12) “We know that more red blood cells mean more blood flow and more dilation. We observed that subjects had more nitric oxide-moderated dilation after eating dairy cheese, compared to after eating pretzels or soy cheese.”

(P13) The researchers reported their findings in the British Journal of Nutrition. Other researchers involved included Billie Alba, a pre-doctoral student in the Department of Kinesiology, and W. Larry Kenney, professor of kinesiology and Marie Underhill Noll Chair in Human Performance.

(P14) An ongoing follow-up study tests the same effects over a longer period of time.

WORDS: 473

SOURCE: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/11/161102102053.htm

VOCABULARY: cardiovascular, antioxidant, kinesiology, dilate, fellow (postdoctoral)

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Name some types of cheeses that people consume in your country.
  3. Do you think it’s important to obtain a doctorate’s degree? Why or why not?
  4. Do you think it’s important to study the effects of diary-cheese products and non-dairy cheese products in humans? Why or why not?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. What’s the name of the organization that performed the research?
  2. Eating cheese will definitely protect people from cardiovascular diseases like high blood pressure. (T or F)
  3. The aim of the research was to compare long-term consequences of eating diary-cheese to non-diary foods. (T or F)
  4. What’s the name of the person from the Center for Healthy Aging?
  5. Billie Alba is not a postdoctoral student. (T or F)

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • a novel finding (P3)
  • if this protection extends over the long term (P5)
  • reflects off red blood cells (P7)
  • soy served as an additional control (P9)
  • an ongoing follow-up study (P14)

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Image source: by “unknown” http://kulinari.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/346-509×264.jpg

Ghirmay Ghebreslassie, Mary Keitany win NYC Marathon

[Sports ★★★★]

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(P1) Eritrea’s Ghirmay Ghebreslassie and Kenya’s Mary Keitany won the New York City Marathon on Sunday.

(P2) Keitany became the first woman to win three straight titles since Grete Waitz won five straight from 1982 to 1986. She pulled away around the 15th mile and finished with an unofficial time of 2 hours, 24 minutes, 26 seconds, one second behind her time last year.

(P3) Ghebreslassie finished his debut in New York with a time of 2:07:51.

(P4) For most of the course, the men’s field was a three-man race between Ghebreslassie, Kenya’s Lucas Rotich, and Ethiopia’s Lelisa Desisa. By Mile 20, Ghebreslassie began gradually pulling away.

(P5) The 20-year-old beat Rotich by 62 seconds to become the youngest male winner in New York. The previous youngest male winners were Alberto Salazar in 1980 and Tom Fleming in 1973, who won as 22-year-olds.

(P6) Defending champion Stanley Biwott of Kenya withdrew at the 10-mile mark with a right calf injury. He also dropped out in the Rio Olympics after getting sick.

(P7) American Abdi Abdirahman placed third.

(P8) Desisa, the runner-up in New York in 2014 and a two-time Boston Marathon winner, dropped out at the 22nd mile.

(P9) Tatyana McFadden won the women’s wheelchair race to sweep the four major marathons for the fourth straight year.

(P10) The 27-year-old American finished with an unofficial time of 1:47:43. She completed the Grand Slam by winning in London, Boston, Chicago and New York, extending her record-breaking streak to 17 straight wins in major marathons.

(P11) McFadden, who won six medals at the Rio Paralympics, took the lead for good at the 15-mile mark and comfortably led the rest of the course to win for the fifth time in New York.

(P12) Marcel Hug of Switzerland won his second NYC Marathon title in the men’s race and his sixth marathon this year. He edged Australia’s Kurt Fearnley by sixth-tenths of a second, repeating their photo finish at last month’s Chicago marathon.

(P13) Defending champion Ernst Van Dyk of South Africa came in fourth.

WORDS: 330

SOURCE: http://www.espn.com/sports/endurance/story/_/id/17982995/new-york-city-marathon-eritrea-ghirmay-ghebreslassie-kenya-mary-keitany-win-titles

VOCABULARY: pulled away, debut, withdrew, runner-up, streak, photo finish

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Have you ever ran a marathon? If no, do you think you could run a marathon without stopping? Why or why not?
  3. Have you ever won a competition? If so, tell me about it.
  4. Do you think marathon runners have to train hard to be a champion runner? Why or why not?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. When did the NYC Marathon take place?
  2. Keitany and Waitz both won 5 consecutive NYC Marathons. (T or F)
  3. Which male runner pulled out of the race after sustaining an injury?
  4. Tatyana McFadden isn’t a disabled competitor. (T or F)
  5. There was a close finish between Marcel Hug and Kurt Fearnley. (T or F)

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • by Mile 20 (P4)
  • three-man race (P4)
  • placed third (P7)
  • to sweep the four major marathons (P9)
  • took the lead for good (P11)

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Image source: by REUTERS/Mike Sega http://a57.foxnews.com/images.foxnews.com/content/fox-news/sports/2016/11/06/kenyas-keitany-eritreas-ghebreslassie-win-nyc-marathon/_jcr_content/par/featured-media/media-0.img.jpg/876/493/1478455524236.jpg?ve=1&tl=1

The Korean DMZ

[Travel ★★★]

the-korean-dmz-titlea

(P1) The Korean De-Militarized Zone (or “DMZ”) is probably one of the strangest places on Earth to visit as a tourist.  There are no beautiful sights to see.  There are no interesting foods to try.  There are no department stores from which to buy something fashionable.  Since the end of the Korean War in 1953, the DMZ has separated North and South Korea.  This 2-kilometer area on each side of the border between both countries spans the entire 251-kilometer width of the Korean peninsula.  Armed soldiers from both sides patrol along the DMZ and there are many military outposts and towers in the area.

(P2) About 75,000 tourists visit the DMZ each year.  It is the most popular tourist attraction in South Korea.  Despite that, it is not an easy place to access.  First, organized visits of the DMZ are only allowed at a very specific part of it.  This point called the UN Joint Security Area is located about 40 kilometers north of Seoul.   Tourists to the DMZ must sign a form that shows they understand and will obey the rules of the tour operators. They also forbid tourists to take photographs at certain times, even while on the bus.  There is a strict dress code enforced and tourists cannot wear t-shirts, jeans, or shorts on their visit.

(P3) After arriving at the DMZ, tourists can see guards patrolling both the north and south side of the border.  They can also visit several tunnels that the North Koreans dug under the DMZ and into South Korea many years ago.  Of course, the visit isn’t totally somber.  There is, after all, a gift shop so you can buy something to remember your visit to the strangest place in the world!

WORDS: 289

SOURCE: http://dreamreader.net/lesson/the-korean-dmz/

VOCABULARY: spans, peninsula, outposts, forbid, tunnels, somber

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Would you like to take a tour of the DMZ? Why or why not?
  3. Why do you think there is still tensions between North and South Korea?
  4. Why do you think there is a strict dress code for tourists in the DMZ?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. What does DMZ stand for?
  2. When was the war over between North and South Korea?
  3. Where is the site of the UN Joint Security Area?
  4. Pictures can be taken at any time during the tours. (T or F)
  5. There are several souvenir shops in the DMZ. (T or F)

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • no beautiful sights to see (P1)
  • armed soldiers (P1)
  • despite that (P2)
  • strict dress code (P2)
  • there is, after all (P3)

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Image source: http://media.gettyimages.com/photos/asia-republic-of-korea-south-korea-seoul-dmz-demilitarized-zone-on-picture-id529739690?s=170667a

Hanami

[Culture ★★★]

hanami-titlea

(P1) Hanami is the Japanese traditional custom of enjoying the beauty of flowers, especially cherry blossoms. The practice of Hanami is more than a thousand years old and is still very popular in Japan today. It takes place in the spring, usually from March to April, because the blossoms only last for a week or two.

(P2) Hanami is very popular among Japanese people of all ages. Thousands of people fill the parks to eat and drink under the flowering trees. The parties commence around lunch time and sometimes these parties go on until late at night. In more than half of Japan, the cherry blossoming days come at the same time of the beginning of school and work, and so welcoming parties are often held under the cherry blossom.

(P3) Usually, people go to the parks many hours before the party to reserve the best places to sit. Some people even stay overnight to save a space for the next afternoon. There is sometimes a lot of drinking and karaoke at Hanami, but many people just unwind with their family, friends, and co-workers. Hanami is a great way to enjoy the beauty that comes for only a short time each year.

WORDS: 199

SOURCE: http://dreamreader.net/lesson/hanami/

VOCABULARY: blossoms, commence, go on, reserve, overnight, unwind

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Describe a traditional custom in your country?
  3. Do you like the beauty of flowers? Why or why not?
  4. Why do you think some traditional customs have been around for thousands of years?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. Which flower is principally appreciated during Hanami?
  2. The cherry blossoms are visible for several weeks. (T or F)
  3. What do the people do beneath the trees during Hanami?
  4. Hanami doesn’t occur simultaneously when work and school begin. (T or F)
  5. A lot of people like to relax with just family and friends. (T or F)

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • the practice of Hanami (P1)
  • takes place (P1)
  • welcoming parties (P2)
  • to save a space (P3)

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Image source: by Sony Ilce-7 http://maxpixel.freegreatpicture.com/Flowers-Japanese-Cherry-Trees-324186

These New Delhi Selfies Are Raising Eyebrows

[Environment ★★★]

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(P1) It is tough to breathe in New Delhi these days, and people are demonstrating against the dangerous air with what Mashable calls “smog selfies.” Residents are posing with landmarks behind them, except that the landmarks are obscured by smog. Another dig: Members of a visiting cricket team whose game was canceled because of the air posed in protective masks. New Delhi, already considered one of the most polluted cities in the world, logged levels of PM2.5 (particulates that clog lungs) above 900 micrograms per cubic meter Saturday, or 90 times higher than the level the World Health Organization calls safe, reports the BBC. Now people are venting online through the hashtag #MyRighttoBreathe.

(p2) For now, government officials are urging everyone to stay inside because pollution this severe can lead to heart disease, lung cancer, and asthma, especially in kids. On Monday, schools were ordered canceled for three days, and all construction in the city has been suspended. A variety of culprits are being blamed: In addition to the usual factors of car exhaust and the burning of rubbish, fireworks during the recent Diwali festival didn’t help, and NASA images imply that massive crop burning, as farmers clear their fields, also is playing a role.

WORDS: 203

SOURCE: http://www.newser.com/story/233653/these-new-delhi-selfies-are-raising-eyebrows.html

VOCABULARY: demonstrating, obscured, venting, culprits, imply

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Are there cities in your country that have severe pollution sometimes? If so, where?
  3. How can severe pollution be prevented?
  4. Do people protest in your country? If so, what do they protest about?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. Why are people protesting in New Delhi?
  2. What are in the back of people when they take pictures of the smog?
  3. Which sports team is also protesting?
  4. What can terrible smog cause in humans?
  5. Setting fire to crops is one of the culprits that is causing the severe pollution. (T or F)

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • another dig (P1)
  • posed in protective masks (P1)
  • can lead to (P2)
  • crop burning (P2)
  • playing a role (P2)

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Image source: by AP Photo/Manish Swarup http://www.newser.com/story/233653/these-new-delhi-selfies-are-raising-eyebrows.html

New UAE law gives workers time off to read

[World News ★★]

20150115183825-books-reading

(P1) The UAE has a new law to get people to read more. It includes many things to increase literacy. Government workers will have time to read books at work. Private companies will create libraries at their offices and factories. Shopping centers will have spaces for public libraries. These will also be for people with reading disabilities. Even cafes will have books and other reading material for customers to read.

(P2) The UAE’s reading law is the idea of President Sheikh Khalifa. The UAE has a 10-year plan to make reading a lifelong habit. It also wants students to read 20 or more books every year. The UAE’s Minister of Education said the new law would make a society that can quickly change and be a world leader in development. A university president said books and libraries are still important, even though we have the Internet.

WORDS: 144

SOURCE: http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/1611/161103-reading-1.html

VOCABULARY: law, literacy, disabilities, lifelong, society

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Do you think it’s important to read? Why or why not?
  3. Why do some people like to read a lot?
  4. Does your country have a reading law like the UAE? If not, should they?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. People who work for the government will be allowed to read at work. (T or F)
  2. Coffee shops will not have material to read. (T or F)
  3. Who came up with the idea of a reading law in the UAE?
  4. How many books does the government want students to read per year?
  5. A person at a university said books are still important, but libraries are not. (T or F)

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • to get people (P1)
  • will have spaces (P1)
  • 10-year plan (P2)
  • can quickly change (P2)

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Image source: by “unknown” http://nvbloc.org/understand/

Los Angeles

[Travel ★★]

la-titlea

(P1) Los Angeles, also called LA, is a city in the USA. It is located in southern California. There are about four million people that live in the city and over 18 million people in the LA region. The city has an area of 1200 square kilometers. The city of LA has the second largest population in the USA. New York City is the largest. LA is the largest city in California.

(P2) The weather is usually warm and arid during the summer. It is cool and rainy in the winter. The weather is usually cooler near the ocean, so the beaches do not get as hot in the summer. It is very rare for temperatures to go below freezing. The city doesn’t get a lot of rain each year.

(P3) L.A. has many famous sights. There are many long beaches, such as Venice Beach. Many visitors go to Hollywood, home to the Hollywood Walk of Fame or visit the famous SeaWorld. Los Angeles also has many outstanding museums such as the L.A. County Museum of Art and the Getty Museum.

WORDS: 178

SOURCE: http://dreamreader.net/lesson/los-angeles/

VOCABULARY: region, population, arid, cooler, sights, outstanding

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Have you ever been to LA? If yes, what did you do there? If no, do you want to go there?
  3. What’s the weather like in your country?
  4. Describe the city that you currently live in?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  • What’s the population of the Los Angeles region?
  • Los Angeles is the largest city in the United States. (T or F)
  • Noramlly the weather in LA is ________ and __________.
  • Los Angeles has a few fine museums. (T or F)

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • located in (P1)
  • usually warm (P2)
  • near the ocean (P2)
  • to go below freezing (P2)

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Image source: by “unknown” http://dreamreader.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/LA-titlea.jpg

Kung Fu Panda

[Animals ★★]

69_800px-giant_panda_eating

(P1) In China, a man decided to get very close to a panda. While the panda was nappinghe walked up to it to touch its head. This woke the panda up and agitated it.

(P2) The panda, which weighs 112 kilograms, ran towards the man. It grabbed his leg and pushed him to the ground. They wrestled for 5 minutes before the man escaped. Neither he nor the bear was hurt. The man was lucky that he did not get two black eyes like the panda!

WORDS: 86

SOURCE: http://www.newsinlevels.com/products/kung-fu-panda-level-2/

VOCABULARY: napping, agitated, wrestled, escaped, black eyes

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Why do you think the man got too close to the Panda?
  3. Do you think this man is crazy to touch a wild animal? Why or why not?
  4. What animals do you like? Why?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. What was the Panda doing when the man tried to touch it?
  2. Where did the man try to touch the animal?
  3. What is the weight of the Panda?
  4. The Panda took hold of the man’s __________.
  5. The man had to be rescued by other people. (T or F)

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • walked up to it (P1)
  • ran towards (P2)
  • it grabbed his leg (P2)
  • like the panda (P3)

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Image source: By Chen Wu from Shanghai, China, CC-BY-2.0, https://www.flickr.com/photos/30073301@N00/3171164610

The coldest village in the world

[Culture ★]

68_oymyakon_forests

(P1) Do you have a feeling that this winter is very cold? Think about the people who live in one Russian town. They say that they live in the coldest town on Earth. The name of their town is Oymyakon. The town is in Siberia.

(P2) The temperatures go down to minus 60. The people say these low temperatures last sometimes for ten days.

(P3) There is another special thing in their town. It is a horse. The horse lives in these low temperatures. The horse is small but very strong. The horse can live through very cold winters.

WORDS: 96

SOURCE: http://www.newsinlevels.com/products/the-coldest-village-in-the-world-level-1/

VOCABULARY: coldest, minus, low, horse, strong

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Would you like to live in Oymyakon? Why or why not?
  3. How low do the temperatures go in your city?
  4. Is there anything special about your city?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. What country is the city in?
  2. What region is the city located in?
  3. How low can the temperatures go in Oymyyakon?
  4. How long can these low temperatures last?
  5. What else is special about the town?

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • have a feeling (P1)
  • go down (P2)
  • another special thing (P3)
  • live through (P3)

Cambly Practice Button

Image source: By Maarten Takens – http://www.flickr.com/photos/takens/8684784715/, CC BY-SA 2.0,https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=28325316